Evaluate, Adapt, And Overcome: Accept No Limits In Life


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Personal Development Examples

Creating a plan for personal development helps you get a better sense of control over your life and will make you better prepared for whatever comes your way. A personal development plan is your guideline for your life and your future success. The reason you need a personal development plan is that making a plan will help you to make better decisions and remind yourself where you want to go. Good preparation increases the probability of success and decreases the risk of things going wrong along the way. When writing a personal development plan, the thing about the goals you want to achieve, ways in which you need to improve and develop, and design a plan that will make you prepared to tackle the most important tasks for the coming day.

A Personal development cycle is a continuous cycle that is composed of three major components — curiosity, awareness, and truth.

As we age, we tend to get set in our routine and lose the curiosity we had as children. You should never become so compliant that you lose your hunger to learn and improve. Ignorance is not always bliss. Becoming aware of our old and bad habits is the only way to actually instrument positive change. It is important to develop a sense of personal awareness to increase your knowledge and understanding of where our strengths and weaknesses lie.

Embrace your truth. The world is yours for the taking, but first, there is some self-growth that needs to occur. By learning and accepting what your strengths and weaknesses are, you can capitalize on the strengths and continuously work to improve the areas of weakness. Forming a personal development planning checklist is the best way to monitor yourself and make sure you are on track to accomplish your end goals. Start by writing out your goals with as much detail as possible. Then write down your strengths and weaknesses. Next, write down a list of resources that you have available to you that may help in your personal development.

This list can include courses and workshops, books and websites, or networking. Do not be afraid to ask others for help. You can network by reaching out to friends and family, colleagues, or even by joining a group that is devoted to the areas you would like to focus on. Personal Development does not have to be a daunting task. If you follow this personal development plan guide, you will uncover key ways of improving yourself without worry and stress.

However, before you can set up a plan, you need to do some self-reflecting and answer personal goal questions. After answering those questions, you can create a personal plan that contains a few key components.

The key components you should focus on are having a specific outcome that you are constantly working towards, planning and paving a path towards achieving it, being mindful of the obstacles, and understanding the bigger motivation behind your actions. Following this easy to remember acronym, you can improve both your personal and professional life. In order to make progress that you can see and track, you need to document a detailed plan of action.

Be as specific with your answers as possible. The more precise, the easier it is to track your progress. Seeing how far you have come and how your hard work is paying off will give you a boost of confidence and provide a sense of accomplishment. Outside of the workspace, it is important to be focusing on some personal goals as well. Similar to the work plan, the personal plan requires you to focus on key points in order to achieve your goals. There are six core steps in this template that will help you take action and measure your progress. Step 1: Write a list of the top ten most important goals you would like to achieve.

Step 2: Write which of those ten is the most important to you and why. Step 3: Write down a specific timeline for achieving your goal. Focus on about three of each and then write how your strengths can help you achieve this goal and how you plan to overcome those weaknesses. Step 5: Write actions that you need to take in order to achieve your goal. This can be things you need to add to your daily routine as well as things you need to eliminate from it.

Step 6: This step is to mark your progress. Write down what has been working well, what you have accomplished, what you still need to improve, and what skills or knowledge you have gained along the way.

Three Early Childhood Development Principles to Improve Child Outcomes

Recognizing the difference between self-improvement and personal development can be a little tricky. While they are similar in that they are both very instrumental in achieving your goals and improving yourself, there are key differences between the two. Personal development is the overall development of your work, lifestyle, attitude, physique, and sociability. It is about your thought process and the way in which you are working to transform yourself on a daily basis.

There are a lot of challenges we have to face in day to day life. Setting personal development goals and creating a plan helps you take full advantage of any opportunity that may come your way and make the most of your potential. Self-improvement is an inner transformation.

Self-improvement is a quest to improve and enhance any and all aspects of yourself and your life. Self-improvement is a lifelong process of constantly searching for ways to maximize your skills and qualities. Creating self-improvement goals such as waking up early, starting a journal, or reading a book weekly can take you from dreaming about your goals to accomplishing your goals. Discover how to have the confidence to take whatever steps are necessary in order to be more admired, respected, and sought after by everyone and anyone who knows you.

This program will teach you how to gain recognition and more responsibility. Almost like magic, you will become more powerful and persuasive. The Power of Effective Communication. After completing this course, you will find it easier than ever to get what you want. Attending seminars are an effective way to learn how to sell more, faster and easier than ever before. Seminars provide proven techniques that each person can apply in every area of life and work. Learn ways to get motivated, stay motivated, and achieve unlimited success in your field. Try something new and find new ways to change things up from your daily routine.

Getting outside of your comfort zone will cause you to grow in ways not possible before. Setting challenges for yourself will keep your mind and body on its toes, helping you to continuously learn and adapt. Before going to bed or before starting your day, create a list of goals you would like to achieve and then a plan of action for how to achieve them.

Setting a few manageable and achievable goals will not only make you more efficient but more confident as well. Switch out watching mindless television for reading inspiring and motivational articles or books. Move quicker from task to task and you will find your sense of accomplishment and confidence will increase greatly. What do you want to improve?

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Leave a comment below. Make sure you download my Personal Development Plan Template. About Brian Tracy — Brian is recognized as the top sales training and personal success authority in the world today. He has authored more than 60 books and has produced more than audio and video learning programs on sales, management, business success and personal development, including worldwide bestseller The Psychology of Achievement. Brian's goal is to help you achieve your personal and business goals faster and easier than you ever imagined.

Your Privacy is Guaranteed. We will never give, lease or sell your personal information. Focusing on your personal development enhances the qualities you hold within you and makes your dreams and aspirations turn into a reality. Brian Tracy. Brian Tracy International. Equity is the principle of fairness in burden sharing and is a basis for understanding how the impacts and responses to climate change , including costs and benefits, are distributed in and by society in more or less equal ways.

It is often aligned with ideas of equality , fairness and justice and applied with respect to equity in the responsibility for, and distribution of, climate impacts and policies across society, generations, and gender, and in the sense of who participates and controls the processes of decision-making. Equity in the consequences, outcomes, costs and benefits of actions or policies. In the case of climate change or climate policies for different people, places and countries, including equity aspects of sharing burdens and benefits for mitigation and adaptation.

Ensuring equity in that women and men have the same rights, resources and opportunities. In the case of climate change gender equity recognizes that women are often more vulnerable to the impacts of climate change and may be disadvantaged in the process and outcomes of climate policy.

Equity between generations that acknowledges that the effects of past and present emissions, vulnerabilities and policies impose costs and benefits for people in the future and of different age groups. Equity in the process of decision-making, including recognition and inclusiveness in participation, equal representation, bargaining power, voice and equitable access to knowledge and resources to participate.

Ethics involves questions of justice and value. Justice is concerned with right and wrong, equity and fairness , and, in general, with the rights to which people and living beings are entitled. Value is a matter of worth, benefit, or good. See also Equality , Equity and Fairness. Data and information used in the scientific process to establish findings.

See also Agreement , Confidence , Likelihood and Uncertainty. The presence of people; livelihoods ; species or ecosystems ; environmental functions, services, and resources; infrastructure; or economic, social, or cultural assets in places and settings that could be adversely affected.

See also Hazard , Risk and Vulnerability. Any cyclonic-scale storm that is not a tropical cyclone. Usually refers to a middle- or high-latitude migratory storm system formed in regions of large horizontal temperature variations. Sometimes called extratropical storm or extratropical low. See also Tropical cyclone. An extreme weather event is an event that is rare at a particular place and time of year. Definitions of rare vary, but an extreme weather event would normally be as rare as or rarer than the 10th or 90th percentile of a probability density function estimated from observations.

By definition, the characteristics of what is called extreme weather may vary from place to place in an absolute sense. When a pattern of extreme weather persists for some time, such as a season, it may be classed as an extreme climate event, especially if it yields an average or total that is itself extreme e. See also Heatwave and Climate extreme extreme weather or climate event. Impartial and just treatment without favouritism or discrimination in which each person is considered of equal worth with equal opportunity. See also Equity , Equality and Ethics. Feasibility depends on geophysical, ecological, technological, economic, social and institutional conditions for change.

Conditions underpinning feasibility are dynamic, spatially variable, and may vary between different groups. See also Enabling conditions. The overflowing of the normal confines of a stream or other body of water, or the accumulation of water over areas that are not normally submerged. Floods include river fluvial floods, flash floods, urban floods, pluvial floods, sewer floods, coastal floods, and glacial lake outburst floods.

A situation that exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life FAO, Food wastage encompasses food loss the loss of food during production and transportation and food waste the waste of food by the consumer FAO, A vegetation type dominated by trees. Many definitions of the term forest are in use throughout the world, reflecting wide differences in biogeophysical conditions, social structure and economics.

See also Afforestation , Deforestation and Reforestation. General purpose technologies can be or are used pervasively in a wide range of sectors in ways that fundamentally change the modes of operation of those sectors Helpman, Examples include the steam engine, power generator and motor, ICT , and biotechnology. A perennial mass of ice, and possibly firn and snow, originating on the land surface by the recrystallisation of snow and showing evidence of past or present flow.

A glacier typically gains mass by accumulation of snow, and loses mass by melting and ice discharge into the sea or a lake if the glacier terminates in a body of water. See also Ice sheet. Global climate model also referred to as general circulation model, both abbreviated as GCM. Estimated global average of near-surface air temperatures over land and sea-ice, and sea surface temperatures over ice-free ocean regions, with changes normally expressed as departures from a value over a specified reference period.

When estimating changes in GMST, near-surface air temperature over both land and oceans are also used. Global average of near-surface air temperatures over land and oceans. Changes in GSAT are often used as a measure of global temperature change in climate models but are not observed directly. The estimated increase in global mean surface temperature GMST averaged over a year period, or the year period centered on a particular year or decade, expressed relative to pre-industrial levels unless otherwise specified.

For year periods that span past and future years, the current multi-decadal warming trend is assumed to continue. See also Climate change and Climate variability. A comprehensive and inclusive concept of the full range of means for deciding, managing, implementing and monitoring policies and measures. Whereas government is defined strictly in terms of the nation-state, the more inclusive concept of governance recognizes the contributions of various levels of government global, international, regional, sub-national and local and the contributing roles of the private sector, of nongovernmental actors, and of civil society to addressing the many types of issues facing the global community.

An emerging term in the literature for the evolution of formal and informal institutions of governance that prioritize social learning in planning, implementation and evaluation of policy through iterative social learning to steer the use and protection of natural resources, ecosystem services and common pool natural resources, particularly in situations of complexity and uncertainty.

Purposeful mechanisms and measures aimed at steering social systems towards preventing, mitigating, or adapting to the risks posed by climate change Jagers and Stripple, Deliberative governance involves decision-making through inclusive public conversation, which allows opportunity for developing policy options through public discussion rather than collating individual preferences through voting or referenda although the latter governance mechanisms can also be proceeded and legitimated by public deliberation processes.

Strategies of governance at various levels, which prioritize the use of social learning and rapid feedback mechanisms in planning and policy making, often through incremental, experimental and iterative management processes. The ability of governance institutions , leaders, and non-state and civil society to plan, co-ordinate, fund, implement, evaluate and adjust policies and measures over the short, medium and long term, adjusting for uncertainty , rapid change and wide-ranging impacts and multiple actors and demands.

Multilevel governance refers to negotiated, non-hierarchical exchanges between institutions at the transnational, national, regional and local levels. Multilevel governance identifies relationships among governance processes at these different levels. Institutional relationships take place directly between transnational, regional and local levels, thus bypassing the state level Peters and Pierre, A governance system that enables direct public engagement in decision-making using a variety of techniques for example, referenda, community deliberation, citizen juries or participatory budgeting.

The approach can be applied in formal and informal institutional contexts from national to local, but is usually associated with devolved decision-making. This definition builds from Fung and Wright 29 and Sarmiento and Tilly The interconnected set of natural and constructed ecological systems, green spaces and other landscape features. It includes planted and indigenous trees, wetlands, parks, green open spaces and original grassland and woodlands, as well as possible building and street-level design interventions that incorporate vegetation.


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Green infrastructure provides services and functions in the same way as conventional infrastructure. This definition builds from Culwick and Bobbins This property causes the greenhouse effect. Moreover, there are a number of entirely human-made GHGs in the atmosphere, such as the halocarbons and other chlorine- and bromine-containing substances, dealt with under the Montreal Protocol.

GDP is calculated without deducting for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. One component of the GDP that corresponds to the total value of acquisitions, minus disposals of fixed assets during one year by the business sector, governments and households, plus certain additions to the value of non-produced assets such as subsoil assets or major improvements in the quantity, quality or productivity of land.

A collective term for the group of partially halogenated organic species, which includes the chlorofluorocarbons CFCs , hydrochlorofluorocarbons HCFCs , hydrofluorocarbons HFCs , halons, methyl chloride and methyl bromide. Many of the halocarbons have large global warming potentials.

The chlorine and bromine-containing halocarbons are also involved in the depletion of the ozone layer. The potential occurrence of a natural or human-induced physical event or trend that may cause loss of life, injury, or other health impacts, as well as damage and loss to property, infrastructure, livelihoods , service provision, ecosystems and environmental resources.

See also Disaster , Exposure , Risk , and Vulnerability. A period of abnormally hot weather. Heatwaves and warm spells have various and in some cases overlapping definitions. Heating, ventilation and air conditioning technology is used to control temperature and humidity in an indoor environment, be it in buildings or in vehicles, providing thermal comfort and healthy air quality to the occupants.

HVAC systems can be designed for an isolated space, an individual building or a distributed heating and cooling network within a building structure or a district heating system. The Holocene is the current interglacial geological epoch, the second of two epochs within the Quaternary period, the preceding being the Pleistocene. The International Commission on Stratigraphy defines the start of the Holocene at 11, years before See also Anthropocene.

The way in which a person acts in response to a particular situation or stimulus. Human actions are relevant at different levels, from international, national, and sub-national actors , to NGO, firm-level actors, and communities, households, and individual actions. Human actions that directly or indirectly affect the risks of climate change impacts. A transformation or modification of human actions. Rights that are inherent to all human beings, universal, inalienable, and indivisible, typically expressed and guaranteed by law.

They include the right to life; economic, social, and cultural rights; and the right to development and self-determination. Basic human rights, including the right to the substance of being human such as life itself, liberty and happiness. A condition that is met when the vital core of human lives is protected, and when people have the freedom and capacity to live with dignity. In the context of climate change , the vital core of human lives includes the universal and culturally specific, material and non-material elements necessary for people to act on behalf of their interests and to live with dignity.

Any system in which human organizations and institutions play a major role. Often, but not always, the term is synonymous with society or social system. Systems such as agricultural systems, urban systems, political systems, technological systems and economic systems are all human systems in the sense applied in this report. The cycle in which water evaporates from the oceans and the land surface, is carried over the earth in atmospheric circulation as water vapour, condenses to form clouds, precipitates as rain or snow, which on land can be intercepted by trees and vegetation, potentially accumulates as snow or ice, provides runoff on the land surface, infiltrates into soils, recharges groundwater, discharges into streams, flows out into the oceans, and ultimately evaporates again from the ocean or land surface.

The various systems involved in the hydrological cycle are usually referred to as hydrological systems. An ice sheet flows outward from a high central ice plateau with a small average surface slope. The margins usually slope more steeply, and most ice is discharged through fast flowing ice streams or outlet glaciers , in some cases into the sea or into ice shelves floating on the sea.

There are only two ice sheets in the modern world, one on Greenland and one on Antarctica. During glacial periods there were others. See also Glacier. The consequences of realized risks on natural and human systems , where risks result from the interactions of climate-related hazards including extreme weather and climate events , exposure , and vulnerability.

Impacts may be referred to as consequences or outcomes, and can be adverse or beneficial. Indigenous knowledge refers to the understandings, skills and philosophies developed by societies with long histories of interaction with their natural surroundings. For many Indigenous peoples, Indigenous knowledge informs decision-making about fundamental aspects of life, from day-to-day activities to longer term actions. This knowledge is integral to cultural complexes, which also encompass language, systems of classification, resource use practices, social interactions, values, ritual and spirituality.

A period of rapid industrial growth with far-reaching social and economic consequences, beginning in Britain during the second half of the 18th century and spreading to Europe and later to other countries, including the United States. The invention of the steam engine was an important trigger of this development. The industrial revolution marks the beginning of a strong increase in the use of fossil fuels , initially coal, and hence emission of carbon dioxide CO 2.

See also Pre-industrial. There are a diversity of approaches for categorizing countries on the basis of their level of development, and for defining terms such as industrialized, developed, or developing. Several categorizations are used in this report. In addition, specific countries are designated as Least Developed Countries LDC , landlocked developing countries, small island developing states , and transition economies. Many countries appear in more than one of these categories. An umbrella term that includes any information and communication device or application, encompassing: computer systems, network hardware and software, cell phones, etc.

Institutions are rules and norms held in common by social actors that guide, constrain and shape human interaction. Institutions can be formal, such as laws and policies, or informal, such as norms and conventions. Organizations — such as parliaments, regulatory agencies, private firms and community bodies — develop and act in response to institutional frameworks and the incentives they frame.

Institutions can guide, constrain and shape human interaction through direct control, through incentives, and through processes of socialization. See also Institutional capacity. Institutional capacity comprises building and strengthening individual organizations and providing technical and management training to support integrated planning and decision-making processes between organizations and people, as well as empowerment, social capital, and an enabling environment, including the culture, values and power relations Willems and Baumert, A method of analysis that combines results and models from the physical, biological, economic and social sciences and the interactions among these components in a consistent framework to evaluate the status and the consequences of environmental change and the policy responses to it.

See also Integrated assessment model IAM. Integrated assessment models IAMs integrate knowledge from two or more domains into a single framework. They are one of the main tools for undertaking integrated assessments. One class of IAM used in respect of climate change mitigation may include representations of: multiple sectors of the economy, such as energy, land use and land-use change ; interactions between sectors; the economy as a whole; associated GHG emissions and sinks ; and reduced representations of the climate system.

This class of model is used to assess linkages between economic, social and technological development and the evolution of the climate system.

Core Principles of Development Can Help Us Redesign Policy and Practice

Another class of IAM additionally includes representations of the costs associated with climate change impacts , but includes less detailed representations of economic systems. These can be used to assess impacts and mitigation in a cost—benefit framework and have been used to estimate the social cost of carbon. A process which promotes the coordinated development and management of water, land and related resources in order to maximize economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems.

The network of computing devices embedded in everyday objects such as cars, phones and computers, connected via the internet, enabling them to send and receive data. A perturbed state of a dynamical system is defined as irreversible on a given timescale, if the recovery time scale from this state due to natural processes is substantially longer than the time it takes for the system to reach this perturbed state. See also Tipping point.

Justice is concerned with ensuring that people get what is due to them, setting out the moral or legal principles of fairness and equity in the way people are treated, often based on the ethics and values of society. Justice that links development and human rights to achieve a human-centred approach to addressing climate change , safeguarding the rights of the most vulnerable people and sharing the burdens and benefits of climate change and its impacts equitably and fairly.

Justice in the way outcomes are brought about including who participates and is heard in the processes of decision-making. Just or fair relations within society that seek to address the distribution of wealth, access to resources, opportunity, and support according to principles of justice and fairness. However, as of May , the Doha Amendment had not received sufficient ratifications to enter into force. The near-surface air temperature over land, typically measured at 1. Land use refers to the total of arrangements, activities and inputs undertaken in a certain land cover type a set of human actions.

The term land use is also used in the sense of the social and economic purposes for which land is managed e. In national greenhouse gas inventories, land use is classified according to the IPCC land use categories of forest land, cropland, grassland, wetland, settlements, other.

See also Land-use change LUC. Refers to market-mediated or policy-driven shifts in land use that cannot be directly attributed to land-use management decisions of individuals or groups. For example, if agricultural land is diverted to fuel production, forest clearance may occur elsewhere to replace the former agricultural production. Compilation and evaluation of the inputs, outputs and the potential environmental impacts of a product or service throughout its life cycle. This definition builds from ISO The chance of a specific outcome occurring, where this might be estimated probabilistically.

Likelihood is expressed in this report using a standard terminology Mastrandrea et al. See also Agreement , Evidence , Confidence and Uncertainty. The resources used and the activities undertaken in order to live. Livelihoods are usually determined by the entitlements and assets to which people have access. Such assets can be categorised as human, social, natural, physical or financial.

Local knowledge refers to the understandings and skills developed by individuals and populations, specific to the places where they live. Local knowledge informs decision-making about fundamental aspects of life, from day-to-day activities to longer-term actions. This knowledge is a key element of the social and cultural systems which influence observations of, and responses to climate change ; it also informs governance decisions.

Long-lived climate forcers refer to a set of well-mixed greenhouse gases with long atmospheric lifetimes. This set of compounds includes carbon dioxide CO 2 and nitrous oxide N 2 O , together with some fluorinated gases. They have a warming effect on climate. These compounds accumulate in the atmosphere at decadal to centennial time scales, and their effect on climate hence persists for decades to centuries after their emission.

On time scales of decades to a century, already emitted emissions of long-lived climate forcers can only be abated by greenhouse gas removal GGR. Actions that may lead to increased risk of adverse climate-related outcomes, including via increased GHG emissions, increased vulnerability to climate change , or diminished welfare, now or in the future.

Maladaptation is usually an unintended consequence. The rate at which a currency of one country can be exchanged with the currency of another country. In most economies such rates evolve daily while in others there are official conversion rates that are adjusted periodically. See also Purchasing power parity PPP. When private decisions are based on market prices that do not reflect the real scarcity of goods and services but rather reflect market distortions, they do not generate an efficient allocation of resources but cause welfare losses. A market distortion is any event in which a market reaches a market clearing price that is substantially different from the price that a market would achieve while operating under conditions of perfect competition and state enforcement of legal contracts and the ownership of private property.

Examples of factors causing market prices to deviate from real economic scarcity are environmental externalities, public goods, monopoly power, information asymmetry, transaction costs and non-rational behaviour. Possible data sources are field measurements, field observations, detection through remote sensing and interviews. One of the six greenhouse gases GHGs to be mitigated under the Kyoto Protocol and is the major component of natural gas and associated with all hydrocarbon fuels.

Significant emissions occur as a result of animal husbandry and agriculture, and their management represents a major mitigation option. It is a population movement, encompassing any kind of movement of people, whatever its length, composition and causes; it includes migration of refugees, displaced persons, economic migrants, and persons moving for other purposes, including family reunification.

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A set of eight time-bound and measurable goals for combating poverty , hunger, disease, illiteracy, discrimination against women and environmental degradation. These goals were agreed at the UN Millennium Summit in together with an action plan to reach the goals by A human intervention to reduce emissions or enhance the sinks of greenhouse gases. In climate policy , mitigation measures are technologies, processes or practices that contribute to mitigation , for example, renewable energy RE technologies, waste minimization processes and public transport commuting practices.

See also Mitigation option , and Policies for climate change mitigation and adaptation. A plausible description of the future that describes how the studied system responds to the implementation of mitigation policies and measures. Motivation can come from outside extrinsic or from inside intrinsic the individual. Qualitative descriptions of plausible future world evolutions, describing the characteristics, general logic and developments underlying a particular quantitative set of scenarios. See also Scenario , Scenario storyline and Pathways. According to Article 4 paragraph 2 of the Paris Agreement, each Party shall prepare, communicate and maintain successive NDCs that it intends to achieve.

Removal of greenhouse gases GHGs from the atmosphere by deliberate human activities, i. A situation of net negative emissions is achieved when, as result of human activities, more greenhouse gases are removed from the atmosphere than are emitted into it. Where multiple greenhouse gases are involved, the quantification of negative emissions depends on the climate metric chosen to compare emissions of different gases such as global warming potential, global temperature change potential, and others, as well as the chosen time horizon.

Net zero carbon dioxide CO 2 emissions are achieved when anthropogenic CO 2 emissions are balanced globally by anthropogenic CO 2 removals over a specified period. Net zero CO 2 emissions are also referred to as carbon neutrality. See also Net zero emissions and Net negative emissions. Net zero emissions are achieved when anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere are balanced by anthropogenic removals over a specified period. Where multiple greenhouse gases are involved, the quantification of net zero emissions depends on the climate metric chosen to compare emissions of different gases such as global warming potential, global temperature change potential, and others, as well as the chosen time horizon.

The main anthropogenic source of N 2 O is agriculture soil and animal manure management , but important contributions also come from sewage treatment, fossil fuel combustion, and chemical industrial processes. N 2 O is also produced naturally from a wide variety of biological sources in soil and water, particularly microbial action in wet tropical forests.

These include short-lived climate forcers , such as methane CH 4 , some fluorinated gases, ozone O 3 precursors, aerosols or aerosol precursors , such as black carbon and sulphur dioxide, respectively, as well as long-lived greenhouse gases , such as nitrous oxide N 2 O or other fluorinated gases. Ocean acidification refers to a reduction in the pH of the ocean over an extended period, typically decades or longer, which is caused primarily by uptake of carbon dioxide CO 2 from the atmosphere , but can also be caused by other chemical additions or subtractions from the ocean. Anthropogenic ocean acidification refers to the component of pH reduction that is caused by human activity IPCC, , p.

Deliberate increase of nutrient supply to the near-surface ocean in order to enhance biological production through which additional carbon dioxide CO 2 from the atmosphere is sequestered. This can be achieved by the addition of micro-nutrients or macro-nutrients. Ocean fertilization is regulated by the London Protocol. Ozone, the triatomic form of oxygen O 3 , is a gaseous atmospheric constituent.

In the troposphere , it is created both naturally and by photochemical reactions involving gases resulting from human activities smog. Tropospheric ozone acts as a greenhouse gas. In the stratosphere , it is created by the interaction between solar ultraviolet radiation and molecular oxygen O 2. Stratospheric ozone plays a dominant role in the stratospheric radiative balance. Its concentration is highest in the ozone layer. Additionally, the Agreement aims to strengthen the ability of countries to deal with the impacts of climate change. The Paris Agreement is intended to become fully effective in Pathway concepts range from sets of quantitative and qualitative scenarios or narratives of potential futures to solution-oriented decision-making processes to achieve desirable societal goals.

A pathway of emissions of greenhouse gases and other climate forcers that provides an approximately one-in-two to two-in-three chance, given current knowledge of the climate response, of global warming either remaining below 1. See also Temperature overshoot.

A series of adaptation choices involving trade-offs between short-term and long-term goals and values. These are processes of deliberation to identify solutions that are meaningful to people in the context of their daily lives and to avoid potential maladaptation. Development pathways are trajectories based on an array of social, economic, cultural, technological, institutional and biophysical features that characterise the interactions between human and natural systems and outline visions for the future, at a particular scale.


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  5. Modelled trajectories of global anthropogenic emissions over the 21st century are termed emission pathways. A mitigation pathway is a temporal evolution of a set of mitigation scenario features, such as greenhouse gas emissions and socio-economic development. Pathways that exceed the stabilization level concentration, forcing , or temperature before the end of a time horizon of interest e. Once the target level is exceeded, removal by sinks of greenhouse gases is required.

    Pathways that stay below the stabilization level concentration, forcing , or temperature during the time horizon of interest e. The word representative signifies that each RCP provides only one of many possible scenarios that would lead to the specific radiative forcing characteristics. The term pathway emphasizes the fact that not only the long-term concentration levels but also the trajectory taken over time to reach that outcome are of interest Moss et al.

    The combination of SSP-based socio-economic scenarios and Representative Concentration Pathway RCP -based climate projections provides an integrative frame for climate impact and policy analysis. Trajectories describing consistent sets of possible futures of greenhouse gas GHG emissions, atmospheric concentrations, or global mean surface temperatures implied from mitigation and adaptation actions associated with a set of broad and irreversible economic, technological, societal and behavioural changes. This can encompass changes in the way energy and infrastructure are used and produced, natural resources are managed and institutions are set up and in the pace and direction of technological change.

    Peri-urban areas are those parts of a city that appear to be quite rural but are in reality strongly linked functionally to the city in its daily activities. Examples of policies are support mechanisms for renewable energy supplies, carbon or energy taxes, fuel efficiency standards for automobiles, etc.

    The set of interlinked relationships between people, the state, society and markets as defined by law, politics, economics, customs and power that determine the outcome of trade and transactions and the distribution of wealth in a country or economy. Poverty is a complex concept with several definitions stemming from different schools of thought.

    See also Poverty eradication. A set of measures to end poverty in all its forms everywhere. Atmospheric compounds that are not greenhouse gases GHGs or aerosols , but that have an effect on GHG or aerosol concentrations by taking part in physical or chemical processes regulating their production or destruction rates. The multi-century period prior to the onset of large-scale industrial activity around The reference period — is used to approximate pre-industrial global mean surface temperature GMST.

    See also Industrial revolution. A projection is a potential future evolution of a quantity or set of quantities, often computed with the aid of a model. Unlike predictions, projections are conditional on assumptions concerning, for example, future socio-economic and technological developments that may or may not be realized. See also Climate projection , Scenario and Pathways. The purchasing power of a currency is expressed using a basket of goods and services that can be bought with a given amount in the home country. International comparison of, for example, gross domestic products GDPs of countries can be based on the purchasing power of currencies rather than on current exchange rates.

    PPP estimates tend to lower the gap between the per capita GDP in industrialized and developing countries. See also Market exchange rate MER. Radiative forcing is the change in the net, downward minus upward, radiative flux expressed in W m -2 at the tropopause or top of atmosphere due to a change in a driver of climate change , such as a change in the concentration of carbon dioxide CO 2 or the output of the Sun. The traditional radiative forcing is computed with all tropospheric properties held fixed at their unperturbed values, and after allowing for stratospheric temperatures, if perturbed, to readjust to radiative-dynamical equilibrium.

    Radiative forcing is called instantaneous if no change in stratospheric temperature is accounted for. The radiative forcing once rapid adjustments are accounted for is termed the effective radiative forcing. Radiative forcing is not to be confused with cloud radiative forcing, which describes an unrelated measure of the impact of clouds on the radiative flux at the top of the atmosphere. An effort to create financial value for the carbon stored in forests , offering incentives for developing countries to reduce emissions from forested lands and invest in low-carbon paths to sustainable development SD.

    It is therefore a mechanism for mitigation that results from avoiding deforestation. Planting of forests on lands that have previously contained forests but that have been converted to some other use. A region is a relatively large-scale land or ocean area characterized by specific geographical and climatological features. The climate of a land-based region is affected by regional and local scale features like topography, land use characteristics and large water bodies, as well as remote influences from other regions, in addition to global climate conditions. The IPCC defines a set of standard regions for analyses of observed climate trends and climate model projections see Figure 3.

    Estimated cumulative net global anthropogenic CO 2 emissions from the start of to the time that anthropogenic CO 2 emissions reach net zero that would result, at some probability, in limiting global warming to a given level, accounting for the impact of other anthropogenic emissions. The capacity of social, economic and environmental systems to cope with a hazardous event or trend or disturbance, responding or reorganizing in ways that maintain their essential function, identity and structure while also maintaining the capacity for adaptation , learning and transformation.

    This definition builds from the definition used by Arctic Council Risk results from the interaction of vulnerability of the affected system , its exposure over time to the hazard , as well as the climate-related hazard and the likelihood of its occurrence.

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    See also Risk , Risk management and Risk perception. See also Risk , Risk assessment and Risk perception. The subjective judgment that people make about the characteristics and severity of a risk. See also Risk , Risk assessment and Risk management. See also Hydrological cycle. A plausible description of how the future may develop based on a coherent and internally consistent set of assumptions about key driving forces e.

    Note that scenarios are neither predictions nor forecasts, but are used to provide a view of the implications of developments and actions. See also Baseline scenario , Emission scenario , Mitigation scenario and Pathways. A narrative description of a scenario or family of scenarios , highlighting the main scenario characteristics, relationships between key driving forces and the dynamics of their evolution. See also Narratives. A seven-point scale Nilsson et al. The scale, as applied in this report, also includes direction whether the interaction is uni- or bi-directional and confidence as assessed per IPCC guidelines.

    Ice found at the sea surface that has originated from the freezing of seawater. Sea ice may be discontinuous pieces ice floes moved on the ocean surface by wind and currents pack ice , or a motionless sheet attached to the coast land-fast ice. Sea ice concentration is the fraction of the ocean covered by ice.

    Sea ice less than one year old is called first-year ice. Perennial ice is sea ice that survives at least one summer. It may be subdivided into second-year ice and multi-year ice, where multi-year ice has survived at least two summers. Global mean sea level change resulting from change in the mass of the ocean is called barystatic.

    The amount of barystatic sea level change due to the addition or removal of a mass of water is called its sea level equivalent SLE. Sea level changes, both globally and locally, resulting from changes in water density are called steric. Density changes induced by temperature changes only are called thermosteric, while density changes induced by salinity changes are called halosteric.

    Barystatic and steric sea level changes do not include the effect of changes in the shape of ocean basins induced by the change in the ocean mass and its distribution. The sea surface temperature is the subsurface bulk temperature in the top few meters of the ocean, measured by ships, buoys, and drifters. From ships, measurements of water samples in buckets were mostly switched in the s to samples from engine intake water. Satellite measurements of skin temperature uppermost layer; a fraction of a millimeter thick in the infrared or the top centimeter or so in the microwave are also used, but must be adjusted to be compatible with the bulk temperature.

    The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction — outlines seven clear targets and four priorities for action to prevent new, and to reduce existing, disaster risks. The voluntary, non-binding agreement recognizes that the State has the primary role to reduce disaster risk but that responsibility should be shared with other stakeholders, including local government and the private sector. Short-lived climate forcers refers to a set of compounds that are primarily composed of those with short lifetimes in the atmosphere compared to well-mixed greenhouse gases , and are also referred to as near-term climate forcers.

    This set of compounds includes methane CH 4 , which is also a well-mixed greenhouse gas, as well as ozone O 3 and aerosols , or their precursors , and some halogenated species that are not well-mixed greenhouse gases. These compounds do not accumulate in the atmosphere at decadal to centennial time scales, and so their effect on climate is predominantly in the first decade after their emission, although their changes can still induce long-term climate effects such as sea level change. Their effect can be cooling or warming. A subset of exclusively warming short-lived climate forcers is referred to as short-lived climate pollutants.

    A reservoir natural or human, in soil, ocean, and plants where a greenhouse gas , an aerosol or a precursor of a greenhouse gas is stored. See also Uptake. They were recognized as a special case both for their environment and development at the Rio Earth Summit in Brazil in The net present value of aggregate climate damages with overall harmful damages expressed as a number with positive sign from one more tonne of carbon in the form of carbon dioxide CO 2 , conditional on a global emissions trajectory over time.

    The full costs of an action in terms of social welfare losses, including external costs associated with the impacts of this action on the environment, the economy GDP , employment and on the society as a whole. An integrated system that includes human societies and ecosystems , in which humans are part of nature. The functions of such a system arise from the interactions and interdependence of the social and ecological subsystems. This definition builds from Arctic Council 58 and Berkes and Folke A process of improving the terms of participation in society, particularly for people who are disadvantaged, through enhancing opportunities, access to resources, and respect for rights UN DESA, A process of social interaction through which people learn new behaviours, capacities, values and attitudes.

    Social, economic and environmental value of mitigation activities that include, in addition to their climate benefits, their co-benefits to adaptation and sustainable development objectives. A scenario that describes a possible future in terms of population, gross domestic product GDP , and other socio-economic factors relevant to understanding the implications of climate change. Socio-technical transitions are where technological change is associated with social systems and the two are inextricably linked. Land management changes which increase the soil organic carbon content, resulting in a net removal of CO 2 from the atmosphere.

    Water stored in the soil in liquid or frozen form. Root-zone soil moisture is of most relevance for plant activity. Artificial injection of stratospheric aerosols , marine cloud brightening and land surface albedo modification are examples of proposed SRM methods. Note that in the literature SRM is also referred to as solar radiation management or albedo enhancement.

    A state in which the atmospheric concentrations of one greenhouse gas GHG e. The highly stratified region of the atmosphere above the troposphere extending from about 10 km ranging from 9 km at high latitudes to 16 km in the tropics on average to about 50 km altitude. See also Atmosphere , and Troposphere. A dynamic process that guarantees the persistence of natural and human systems in an equitable manner. Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs WCED, 62 and balances social, economic and environmental concerns.

    The 17 global goals for development for all countries established by the United Nations through a participatory process and elaborated in the Agenda for Sustainable Development , including ending poverty and hunger; ensuring health and well-being , education, gender equality , clean water and energy, and decent work; building and ensuring resilient and sustainable infrastructure, cities and consumption; reducing inequalities ; protecting land and water ecosystems ; promoting peace, justice and partnerships; and taking urgent action on climate change.

    See also Sustainable development SD. The exchange of knowledge, hardware and associated software, money and goods among stakeholders, which leads to the spread of technology for adaptation or mitigation. The term encompasses both diffusion of technologies and technological cooperation across and within countries. The temporary exceedance of a specified level of global warming , such as 1.

    Overshoot implies a peak followed by a decline in global warming, achieved through anthropogenic removal of CO 2 exceeding remaining CO 2 emissions globally. See also Overshoot pathways and Non-overshoot pathways both under Pathways. A level of change in system properties beyond which a system reorganizes, often abruptly, and does not return to the initial state even if the drivers of the change are abated.

    For the climate system , it refers to a critical threshold when global or regional climate changes from one stable state to another stable state. See also Irreversibility. A profound and often deliberate shift initiated by communities toward sustainability, facilitated by changes in individual and collective values and behaviours, and a fairer balance of political, cultural, and institutional power in society. A system-wide change that requires more than technological change through consideration of social and economic factors that, with technology, can bring about rapid change at scale.

    The transient global average surface temperature change per unit cumulative CO 2 emissions, usually GtC. TCRE combines both information on the airborne fraction of cumulative CO 2 emissions the fraction of the total CO 2 emitted that remains in the atmosphere , which is determined by carbon cycle processes and on the transient climate response TCR. See also Transient climate response under Climate sensitivity.

    An approach to urban development that maximizes the amount of residential, business and leisure space within walking distance of efficient public transport, so as to enhance mobility of citizens, the viability of public transport and the value of urban land in mutually supporting ways. The process of changing from one state or condition to another in a given period of time. Transition can be in individuals, firms, cities, regions and nations, and can be based on incremental or transformative change. The general term for a strong, cyclonic-scale disturbance that originates over tropical oceans.

    Distinguished from weaker systems often named tropical disturbances or depressions by exceeding a threshold wind speed. A tropical storm is a tropical cyclone with one-minute average surface winds between 18 and 32 m s Beyond 32 m s -1 , a tropical cyclone is called a hurricane, typhoon, or cyclone, depending on geographic location. See also Extratropical cyclone. The lowest part of the atmosphere , from the surface to about 10 km in altitude at mid-latitudes ranging from 9 km at high latitudes to 16 km in the tropics on average , where clouds and weather phenomena occur.

    In the troposphere, temperatures generally decrease with height. See also Atmosphere and Stratosphere. A state of incomplete knowledge that can result from a lack of information or from disagreement about what is known or even knowable. It may have many types of sources, from imprecision in the data to ambiguously defined concepts or terminology, incomplete understanding of critical processes, or uncertain projections of human behaviour.

    Uncertainty can therefore be represented by quantitative measures e. See also Confidence and Likelihood. See also Kyoto Protocol and Paris Agreement. The addition of a substance of concern to a reservoir. See also Carbon sequestration and Sink. The propensity or predisposition to be adversely affected. Vulnerability encompasses a variety of concepts and elements including sensitivity or susceptibility to harm and lack of capacity to cope and adapt. See also Exposure , Hazard and Risk. Ecosystem well-being refers to the ability of ecosystems to maintain their diversity and quality.

    Note that subterms are in italics beneath main terms. Coordinating Editor: J. Robin Matthews France, United Kingdom. Weyer Germany. Acceptability of policy or system change The extent to which a policy or system change is evaluated unfavourably or favourably, or rejected or supported, by members of the general public public acceptability or politicians or governments political acceptability. Adaptability See Adaptive capacity. Adaptation In human systems , the process of adjustment to actual or expected climate and its effects, in order to moderate harm or exploit beneficial opportunities.

    Incremental adaptation Adaptation that maintains the essence and integrity of a system or process at a given scale. Transformational adaptation Adaptation that changes the fundamental attributes of a socio-ecological system in anticipation of climate change and its impacts. Hard adaptation limit: No adaptive actions are possible to avoid intolerable risks. Soft adaptation limit: Options are currently not available to avoid intolerable risks through adaptive action. Adaptation behaviour See Human behaviour.

    Adaptation limits See Adaptation. Adaptation options The array of strategies and measures that are available and appropriate for addressing adaptation. Adaptation pathways See Pathways. Adaptive capacity The ability of systems, institutions , humans and other organisms to adjust to potential damage, to take advantage of opportunities, or to respond to consequences.

    Adaptive governance See Governance. Afforestation Planting of new forests on lands that historically have not contained forests. Agreement In this report, the degree of agreement within the scientific body of knowledge on a particular finding is assessed based on multiple lines of evidence e. Air pollution Degradation of air quality with negative effects on human health or the natural or built environment due to the introduction, by natural processes or human activity, into the atmosphere of substances gases, aerosols which have a direct primary pollutants or indirect secondary pollutants harmful effect.

    Albedo The fraction of solar radiation reflected by a surface or object, often expressed as a percentage. Anomaly The deviation of a variable from its value averaged over a reference period. Anthropogenic Resulting from or produced by human activities. Anthropogenic removals Anthropogenic removals refer to the withdrawal of GHGs from the atmosphere as a result of deliberate human activities.

    Artificial intelligence AI Computer systems able to perform tasks normally requiring human intelligence, such as visual perception and speech recognition. Attribution See Detection and attribution. Baseline scenario In much of the literature the term is also synonymous with the term business-as-usual BAU scenario , although the term BAU has fallen out of favour because the idea of business as usual in century-long socio-economic projections is hard to fathom.

    Biochar Stable, carbon-rich material produced by heating biomass in an oxygen-limited environment. Biodiversity Biological diversity means the variability among living organisms from all sources, including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems UN, 9. Bioenergy Energy derived from any form of biomass or its metabolic by-products.

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